Tuesday, 9 February 2016

Restaurant on fire

fire

A goldfields romance

Just a few days before the marriage of George Bennett and Bridget Helen Kelly in 1887, a fire broke out near Bennett’s restaurant in Teetulpa, South Australia.

Alluvial gold had been found at Teetulpa in 1886 and thousands of people flocked to the area to seek their fortune. Situated 85 km northeast of Peterborough in South Australia, life on the goldfield was difficult with limited water supplies. Typhoid had been common towards the end of 1886 with several deaths recorded. By February of 1887 it was estimated that the population was about 2500. (1)

Miners must eat and it appears the Bennetts had a restaurant. On the marriage certificate of George and Bridget Helen he is listed as a restaurant keeper aged 25. Was this his restaurant where the fire broke out on June 19th 1887? Luckily it appears that only “wearing apparel and bedding were consumed” but with the young couple’s wedding scheduled for the following Sunday, June 26th the loss may have been more significant than these few lines in the “South Australian Register” convey.

A fire took place near Bennett’s restaurant this evening. Only wearing apparel and bedding were consumed.

George aged 25, the son of George John Bennett and Bridget Helen aged 23, the daughter of Daniel Kelly, both residents of Teetulpa were married on 26th June 1887 by G Edward Young in “a building set apart in which to hold Church of England services.” The witnesses were Catherine Stevenson a nurse and Walter Moore a storeperson both of whom listed Teetulpa as their place of residence.(2)

In 1888 their first child Olive Mary Bennett was born and registered in the Broken Hill district of NSW. Perhaps George and Bridget had moved on to the mining fields at Silverton. At this stage I’ve been unable to locate the birth record of their second child, Georgina Ellen Bennett my maternal grandmother,(born about 1890-1) By 1892 another move has been made to Goodwood, Adelaide, South Australia where the birth of their son James George David Bennett on August 16 of that year is recorded. The next birth registered to the couple is that of Cecil Victor Bennett  born at Edithburgh, Yorke Peninsula, South Australia on 7 April 1902.

Marriages of the children

When Olive, now aged 19 married Daniel Casaretto in October of 1906, her parents George and Bridget Helen Bennett are listed as living at Edithburgh on Yorke Peninsula, South Australia.

Daniel’s casarettoparents were from Hamley Bridge.
Perhaps Mary Olive's younger sister Georgina accompanied her to Hamley Bridge. Less than a year later on September 11th 1907 Georgina married Patrick Joseph O’Dea of Hamley Bridge.

George and Bridget Helen Bennett were now living in Gawler, South Australia.

JamesBennettJames, at the age of 24 married Ethel Richards on January 20, 1917 at the Holy Cross Church at Goodwood in Adelaide. Tragedy was soon to follow. A scant nine months later James was visiting his sister Georgina, brother-in-law Patrick and their 5 children in Ngallo, Victoria when he was struck down with illness and died leaving his widow Ethel with a 2 month old son, Albert John Bennett (known in later life as Jacky).

His widow Ethel subsequently married Michael James O’Dea, Georgina’s brother-in-law on October 9,1918.

Cecil (known as Ron) married May Pike at the Holy Cross Church in Goodwood on April 10, 1926. (3)

Bridget Helen Bennett died aged 71 on May 15, 1934 at Lourdes Valley, Glen Osmond (4) and was buried in the Catholic cemetery at West Terrace in Adelaide on the following day.(5) At this stage I have been unable to determine where and when her husband, my great-grandfather George Bennett died. If you have any further information on this family, my contact details are on the About page of this blog.

Shoes, boots and the shop

Casaretto - When we were children our shoes were purchased at Casaretto's shoe shop in Hamley Bridge often after Sunday Mass. The shop owner, Stephen Casaretto was Daniel and Mary Olive's son, my mother's first cousin. It seemed to me as a child that the store was opened especially for us. I remember towers of boxes and the smell of leather, it was quite an Aladdin's cave for a child unused to shopping. What a delight it was to own a new pair of shoes when so many previous pairs had been handed on from older siblings.

Genealogy Snapshot

Name: George Bennett
Spouse: Bridget Helen Kelly

Relationship to Carmel: Great-grandparents
  1. George Bennett and Bridget Helen Kelly
  2. Georgina Ellen Bennett (O'DEA)
  3. Hannah Olive O'Dea (HORGAN)
  4. Carmel


1. 1887 'The North Australian.', North Australian (Darwin, NT : 1883 - 1889), 12 February, p. 2, viewed 10 February, 2016,http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article47996409

2. South Australian District marriage transcript.

3. 1926 'Family Notices.', Southern Cross (Adelaide, SA : 1889 - 1954), 14 May, p. 12, viewed 10 February, 2016, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article167756034

4. 1934 'Family Notices.', The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1931 - 1954), 16 May, p. 18, viewed 9 February, 2016, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article47558739

5. 1934 'Advertising.', The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1931 - 1954), 16 May, p. 5, viewed 9 February, 2016, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article47558483

Tuesday, 2 February 2016

Celebrating 50th wedding anniversaries

In 1987 my parents Hannah O'Dea and Edward John Horgan celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary with a Mass and family gathering of their children and grandchildren. Many of the grandchildren in this photo now have children of their own.
50th wedding anniversary 1987
Fast forward to 2016 and during this next period of a month, two of Hannah and Eddie's children and their husbands celebrate their 50th wedding anniversaries. Congratulations, Bernadette and John, Monica and Ernest.

February 2nd 1966

One month later
March 1st 1966
Other wedding anniversaries amongst the siblings this year, two 48th anniversaries, two 45th anniversaries and one 38th. Happy days to all. Glad I don't still have that dress with the lace down the front of the bodice, and gloves, what was I thinking! Did we all wear them in 1966?






Tuesday, 29 December 2015

They are every bit as good as they look

3. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article166959240
"This week I present two of my best nieces—Johanna and Katie Horgan. I am sure you will all agree with me that they look good, but I can assure you that they are every bit as good as they look. I will not say more, or I may be thought to be flattering."

So wrote "Aunt Eily" (Mrs A.M. Ryan) the editor of the Children's Page in "The Southern Cross" newspaper of 24 April 1903.(1) She addressed any contributors to the page as nieces and nephews even though they were not blood relations. By 1898 Johanna's and Katie's mother, Hanora, had taken out a subscription (2) to this Catholic weekly paper. As regular readers these young women would probably have been contributors to the orphans' home established at Goodwood as funds were regularly sought for the orphanage through "Aunt Eily's" page. Perhaps Johanna and Katie had visited Mrs Ryan's Catholic Book and Art Depot in Gawler Place in Adelaide, as in this picture they are certainly older than the children writing letters to the page.

Johanna Horgan pictured on the left was born to Hanora (O'Leary) and John Horgan at Linwood in South Australia about 1877. It appears she was named after her grandmother Johanna (Fitzgerald) Horgan who was about 72 when she was born. Her father John, aged 48 died in 1883 only three years after her grandmother who died in 1880. 

Catherine Mary Horgan, known as Katie here or in later years as Kate, had been born five years earlier in about 1872. It is likely that she was named after her maternal grandmother, Catherine (Burke) O'Leary who had died the previous year, 1871.

 At the time this picture (3) appeared in the paper they were respectively about 26 and 31 years old. These were two of my grandfather Andrew Horgan's three sisters. Their younger sister Nora Mary Horgan born 1878, had by 1898 been appointed to teach at Alma North school. (4)

Little is reported of their early lives but it is highly likely they attended social gatherings such as this 1895 New Year's day picnic at Tarlee where two of their brothers, John and Andrew, are mentioned as having success in various competitions. (5)
TARLEE SPORTS.
Although the attendance at the Tarlee picnic was not up to that of last year the affair passed off very successfully. There were about 400 on the ground, and entries for every race were numerous, especially for the Sheffield handicap, which caused much excitement, D. Treagus winning with B. O'Halleron second and K. G. Jakes third. The weather was rather warm, and those who had not the luxury of umbrellas felt the heat of the sun's rays rather much. However, this was not minded, as there was plenty of amusement to repay those who attended. The New Year's Gift was a very good race, and led to an exciting finish. The secretary (Mr. J. Mclnherney) worked very hard and deserves praise for looking after the interest of the picnic as he did. Messrs. B. Fitzgerald and John Bond were judges of the athletic sports, and Mr. J. C.
Nadebaum starter. Mr. F. Norton acted as judge of the horse-racing.
 
In the evening a concert was held in the Institute, which also passed off well. Mr. J. McLachlan, M.P., presided, and the following ladies and gentlemen assisted:—Misses L. Carrigg, Elizabeth Molony, Ryan (2), Mrs. Rodda, Messrs. J. Rooney, J. Brooks, J. Rodda and W. Daly. Encores were the order of the evening, Misses Carrigg and Molony being specially well received. 
Below are particulars of the sports:—
75 yards handicap boys' race (uuder 12)— A. Davis; F. O'Dea.
Sheffield handicap (135 -yards) — D. Treagus ; B. O'Halleron; R. Jakes; G.Davies.
100 yards handicap boys' race (under 15) —C. O'Halleron; F. Nabebaum.
Running high jump (handicap)—M. Dermody; J. Horgan; W. Daly.
Obstacle race—W. Daly; A. Gasmier; M. Shea.
150 yards handicap hurdles—A. Gasmier; C. Nicholls; M. Dermody.
135 yards consolation race (handicap)— A. Buxton; C. Nicholls.
Forced handicap (150 yards)—A. Gasmier; W. Daly.
Tilting—P. Keeling; J. Overton; J. Horgan.
Race with polo balls—B. Fitzgerald; A. Horgan.
Bicycle race (1½ miles)—M. Wilson; G. Davis.
New Year's Gift, 1 mile (handicap)—M. O'Dea's "St. Helena"; D. ' Treagus's
" Stinkwort."
Maiden trot (1½ miles)—F, Williams's "Major Gordon"; H. Evans's "Daisy
Bell"
Shorts, half-mile heats without dismounting (for horses that had never won an advertised race)—A. Woods's "O.V.G."; B. Smith's " Little Dick."
Handicap trot (2½ miles) — A. Woods's " Darky"; F. Williams's *' Nimrod"
Hack race, ¾ mile (for horses that had never won an stake of more than £5, winner of New Year's Gift also excluded) to carry not less than 8 stone—D. Treagus's " Stinkwort"; J. Callanan's " Brownie."
Pony race, ¾ mile (for ponies not over 14 hands)—C. Nicholls's " Fairy"; J. Cleary's " Typo."
Quoits (18 yards)—J. Horgan; J. Douoghue; P. Byrne.
Irish Jig—W. Daly ; P. Byrne.
Tug-of-war (6 men aside)—J. O'Shea's team; J. Buckley's team.
Tossing the caber—A. Schwerdt; J. O'Shea.
Putting the shot, 28 lbs. (handicap)—A. Schwerdt; M. Hansbury.
Bowling contest—E; Hall; J. Donoghue.
In 1909 their younger sister, Nora Mary Horgan was married to John McInerney and in 1918 we find a mention of one of her sisters, either Kate or Johanna, in this accident report while driving nephews, Nora's sons to school. (6)

SERIOUS SULKY ACCIDENT.
RIVERTON, May 29.- Miss Horgan was yesterday driving Mr. Mclnerney's two children to school, and on the way the party in the sulky was augmented by two of Mrs. F. Mitchell's little girls. Shortly afterwards something went wrong with the front of the vehicle. Miss Horgan stood up to see what was wrong, and at that moment the shaft fell to the ground. Miss Horgan and one of her nephews were thrown out. The horse then bolted and threw the other children out, and finally collided with a tree. The sulky was smashed to pieces. The horse continued its career and was ultimately captured in Mr. A. Hannaford's paddock. Mr. H. Evans hurried to the scene of the accident, and found that one of Mrs. Mitchell's girls was unconscious. He went for Dr. Glynn, who removed the child to his private hospital. There it was discovered that she was suffering from a fractured skull. The other Miss Mitchell was found to have sustained a broken collarbone. None of the other occupants of the vehicle were hurt. Both patients are progressing favourably.
Johanna Horgan tombstone 
On August 26, 1926 Johanna died (7) after a long illness. She was 49. She was buried at St John's cemetery at Kapunda the following day. This obituary from "The Register" (8) records something of her life.
Miss Johanna Horgan, second daughter of Mrs. H. Horgan, Linwood, and the late Mr. J. Horgan, who died recently at her mother's residence (writes our Stockport correspondent) was most deservedly popular, with all with whom she came in contact. She had an ever ready smile of friendship, and although her illness was painfully weary and of long duration, she bore all suffering with marvellous fortitude. 
She was a devoted member and worshipper at the Roman Catholic Church, at Tarlee, and St. Mary's Church, Hamley Bridge. Much sympathy is felt throughout the whole district for the aged mother, and her sisters, Miss Kate Horgan (Linwood), Mrs. J. McInerney (Riverton), and her brothers, Messrs. Andy Horgan (Alma), and Thomas and John Horgan (Linwood).

Catherine Mary Horgan died on June 4, 1956 and is buried alongside her brothers Thomas (died 1941) and John (died 1942) in Kapunda Catholic cemetery, South Australia.
Nora Mary (Horgan) McInerney died on May 3, 1974 and is buried in Navan, Riverton Catholic cemetery, South Australia.


1. 1903 'CHILDREN'S PAGE. ST. VINCENT'S JUVENILE CLUB.', Southern Cross (Adelaide, SA : 1889 - 1954), 24 April, p. 12, viewed 28 December, 2015, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article166959238

2. 1898 'Advertising.', Southern Cross (Adelaide, SA : 1889 - 1954), 16 September, p. 8, viewed 28 December, 2015, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article166439267

3..1903 'LETTERS TO AUNT EILY.', Southern Cross (Adelaide, SA : 1889 - 1954), 24 April, p. 12, viewed 28 December, 2015, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article166959240

4. 1898 'THE COUNTRY.', The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1889 - 1931), 12 March, p. 5, viewed 28 December, 2015, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article35107991

5. 1895 'TARLEE SPORTS.', Kapunda Herald (SA : 1878 - 1951), 4 January, p. 3, viewed 28 December, 2015, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article108323271

6. 1918 'SERIOUS SULKY ACCIDENT.', The Register(Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929), 30 May, p. 6, viewed 28 December, 2015, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60358398

7.  1926 'Family Notices.', Southern Cross (Adelaide, SA : 1889 - 1954), 3 September, p. 10, viewed 28 December, 2015, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article167757393

8. 1926 'COUNTRY NEWS.', The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929), 7 September, p. 2, viewed 28 December, 2015, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article54867232

Thursday, 24 December 2015

Christmas Eve 1923

Busy scene in Rundle Street on Christmas Eve 1923
  http://collections.slsa.sa.gov.au/resource/PRG+280/1/45/193

My father, Edward John Horgan would have been 15 years 7 months on Christmas Eve 1923. What did Christmas hold in store for him?  I wonder if they ever went to Adelaide for any shopping. Alma where he lived, is 106 km (65.8 miles) from Adelaide on today's roads, so a trip to Adelaide in 1923 would have been a major undertaking.
His Christmas Day would certainly have included a trip to Mass at either Tarlee or Hamley Bridge with his parents Andrew and Elizabeth and younger brother Joe. After that we imagine the hot traditional Christmas meal served often in temperatures well above 35 degrees Celsius. Eddie's grandmother, Hanora who was 83 at this stage was still living on the farm with his bachelor uncles, Thomas now 52 and John, 48. His aunt Kate, also unmarried but cooking and caring for all of them was now 51. Perhaps they travelled across to the farm at Linwood for Christmas Day.

My mother Hannah O'Dea had moved back to Hamley Bridge by 1923 after the death of her father in 1919. She was 11 years 8 months and her Christmas Day would involve attending Mass in Hamley Bridge with a similar hot meal shared with relatives living in the same town. Her grandmother Maria O'Dea was 82 and living with her two spinster daughters, my mother's aunts Hannah Teresa O'Dea 54 and Margaret I O'Dea now 57 years old. One hopes they treasured their six nieces and nephews. It is highly unlikely that there would have been shopping trips for the family as money was scarce while Mum's now widowed mother, Georgina, struggled to make ends meet.

Perhaps they had one of these 1923 puddings at the end of their meals.
SOME USEFUL RECIPES.

Six-Cup Pudding.

One breakfast cup of each of the following:—Suet, flour, sugar, bread crumbs, fruit (raisins and currants), milk. Mix all the dry ingredients together, pour in the milk, and stir well. Put into a greased basin and boil for five hours. If well boiled and served with a little sauce it is as good as a Christmas pudding, and is more economical.

Suet Pudding.

Six ounces of finely chopped suet, 1lb. flour, and a little salt. Mix and tie up tightly in cloth, then put in saucepan with cold water to cover it. Boil one hour. The result will be a very light pudding, more so than by the old style of boiling the water before putting in the pudding. No baking powder must be used.
1923 'SOME USEFUL RECIPES.', Kapunda Herald (SA : 1878 - 1951), 7 December, p. 4, viewed 24 December, 2015, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article108296975

Meanwhile in Adelaide some were enjoying their preparations for the day. Here's the report of Christmas Eve in Rundle St, the main shopping street in Adelaide in 1923, found adjacent to the photo above in "The Register."

CHRISTMAS EVE.
City Glamour and Gaiety. The Festive Spirit Abroad
.
Like a dream when one awakes, fashions; fade away; and each season the many styles in wearing apparel become as a tale that is told. Insatiable as is the thirst for the novel and the new, however, the cherished customs associated with the festive season of Christmas emulate the brook, and go on for ever.
 
One of the requisites for the success of Christmas Eve, from the viewpoint of the crowds in the streets, is something, or anything, that will make a noise. It does not much matter what it is; but the louder, and more varied the din that can be created by it, the more jubilant the carnival celebrant. 
Mouth-organs, tin-whistles, trumpets, drums, horns, and hooters are popular, to enumerate but a few of the many musical (?) mediums for the expression of the merriment of the masses. But there must also be shriekers! That may not be the technical term by which the instruments are known to the operators, but it seems as good a name as any other to give to those devices which consist of a waxed string attached to a cardboard soundbox, and which, when fingers are drawn down the string, give forth a sound that can be best likened to the last gasp of a dying goose— a sound subtly suggestive of Christmas.

Did you ever make a sound box like the one described above? Merry Christmas to all, I hope your sounds of Christmas are not best 'likened to the last gasp of a dying goose' but those of happy laughter and goodwill.

1923 'CHRISTMAS EVE.', The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929), 26 December, p. 7, viewed 24 December, 2015, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article65059422

Tuesday, 8 December 2015

Linwood, Stockport, Tarlee, Pinkerton Plains

Rural schools in South Australia in my grandparents' times

Schools established early in the life of the colony of South Australia were funded by the ability of parents to pay for tuition and provide a suitable teacher and building. An application for a licence to teach in schools could be submitted to the Board of Education which had been established in 1847. The Act made it clear that it was incumbent on the local community who:
 are desirous to place such children under the tuition of a teacher to be named by them, with their residences and a description of the place where the school is proposed to be kept, and it shall also be certified by at least one Justice of the Peace, that he knows the residences of such persons to be as stated by them, that such teacher is known to him as a person of moral habits, and every way fit to undertake the care and instruction of children, and that proper accommodation has been provided for the said school....
The teacher appointed could be paid up to twenty pounds per annum for the first twenty pupils, and an extra one pound per pupil up to forty pounds. As settlement expanded many small schools were established with applications for licences regularly listed in the newspapers. By 1850 there were 65 schools receiving government aid. Licences were withdrawn if the teacher did not meet expectations.

The difficulty of maintaining enrolments and finding a suitable person to conduct the school led to this application in 1870. (3)
From; Annie Roe, Bethel, informing the Board that Linwood School was vacant, and stating that the inhabitants were willing to allow her to conduct the two schools at Linwood and Bethel.  To take the school, subject to the Inspector's report.
By this time John Horgan and his wife Honora O'Leary, (paternal great grandparents) were living on the farm at Linwood between these two schools and they had two small boys. Thomas Horgan b. 1867 and Andrew Joseph Horgan born 1869 soon to be followed by Catherine Mary Horgan b 1872, John Horgan b.1875, Johanna Horgan b 1877 and Nora Mary Horgan b.1878




Over at Pinkerton Plains, John O'Dea and his wife Maria Crowley (maternal great grandparents) were raising their family Margaret I O'Dea, b. 1866, Hannah Teresa O'Dea b. 1869 and soon to be followed by John Francis Benedict O'Dea b. 1870, Mary Anne O'Dea b.  1875, Patrick Joseph O'Dea b. 1877 and Michael James b. 1881
Here Elizabeth M. W. Dennis, of Pinkerton Plains school had stated (3):
 that there were few children attending her school, as most of  them were detained to assist in harvesting. There were 33 names on the roll, but although the parents had promised to send their children she could not say they had all attended as yet. She believed they intended to fulfil their promise as soon as possible. Forms to be supplied, and school to be inspected
So did my grandfathers attend either of these schools? As far as I have been able to ascertain at this stage, no registers of pupils for these schools in the relevant time periods are available through the archives.

Access to schools was not only limited by financial means but the vagaries of the seasons, the farm work needing to be done and the state of the roads all played a part. In 1875 an act was passed to ensure free, compulsory education for all children.

In 1882 John Horgan was once again appealing to the local board of main roads for the remediation work needed on a ditch on the main road near his property. Was it safe for his children to cross? Road conditions were always and indeed continue to be an issue for authorities. (4)

This report of a school visitation in 1883, gives us a brief glance at three of the local schools. (5)

1883
School Visitation.—A visit of inspection was made on Friday, the 8th inst., by the Chairman of the Local Board of Advice (Mr. W. Lewis, J.P.), and Messrs. Cameron and Mellor, J.P.'s, to the following district schools, viz:
Linwood (J. Callier, master)—There were 14 boys and 9 girls present, the number on the roll being 16 boys and 13 girls, the average attendance for the month ending May 31st being 22. The classes were briefly examined in reading, spelling, grammar, arithmetic, geography, &c. The children were cleanly in appearance and well-behaved. The school premises are in a fair state of repair and clean.
 Stockport School (Mrs. Myles, head-mistress)—There were 17 boys and 19 girls present, the age of the youngest being 5 and the eldest 12 years. The general average attendance at this school is 40, but for the month ending the 30th ult. the average did not exceed 33½, which was no doubt owing to the many wet days during May. The children, who were examined in reading, spelling,meaning of words, writing, and geography, were attentive and moderately proficient, taking into account their extreme youth, and the fact of so few being in the third and fourth classes. The members present are of opinion that for a place like Stockport a male teacher might be the means of bringing to the school older children, especially boys. The school premises are in fair repair, excepting the fence, which it was decided should be repaired. 

Tarlee School (J. Latter, head master).—The number on the roll in this school is 41, the average attendance for last month being only 27½, but doubtless the low average resulted from the same cause as at Stockport. The youngest child attending school is 5 and the eldest 13½ years old. The children were examined in several branches; the writing on their slates from dictation was exceedingly good both as regards the writing and spelling and called forth the commendation of the visitors. The want of shed accommodation here as at other schools is greatly felt, and sundry small matters of repairs were noted down.
By June of 1883 John Horgan, father of Andrew and husband of Hanora had died age 48. At 43 she was left to struggle on the farm, a widow with 6 children the eldest of whom was 16 and the youngest 5.

At this stage I have no means of determining which schools my grandfathers may have attended. Nora Mary Horgan, Andrew's sister went on to become a school mistress so education was valued and Andrew may have spent some time studying to become a priest some years before his marriage in 1906. In later years Andrew's grandchildren attended the schools at both Stockport and Tarlee, and nine of his great grandchildren attended Tarlee. We have much to be grateful for when reflecting on those early schools and teachers who led the way and a free compulsory government supported system, education for all.

1. Comments on Education: Education in Early South Australia
(Taken from Geoffrey H. Manning's A Colonial Experience) viewed 8 December, 2015, http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/manning/sa/edu/comments.htm

2. 1847 'ACTS PASSED DURING THE PRESENT SESSION.',South Australian (Adelaide, SA : 1844 - 1851), 21 September, p. 4, viewed 8 December, 2015, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71609439

3. 1870 'BOARD OF EDUCATION.', The Express and Telegraph (Adelaide, SA : 1867 - 1922), 22 February, p. 3 Edition: SECOND EDITION., viewed 8 December, 2015, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article207719071

4. 1882 'LOCAL BOARD OF MAIN ROADS. CENTRAL DISTRICT.', The South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1889), 21 April, p. 7, viewed 8 December, 2015, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article73200943

5. 1883 'MUSIC IN KAPUNDA.', Kapunda Herald (SA : 1878 - 1951), 12 June, p. 2, viewed 5 December, 2015, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article106575591